新型城镇化蓝皮书(2014)

摘 要


 党的十八大把推进城镇化作为解决制约我国经济持续健康发展结构性问题的一个重大举措,强调坚持走中国特色新型城镇化道路,这就要求我们准确把握城镇化规律,确立科学的推进新型城镇化的行动框架。为更好地服务于理论研究、政府决策和企业投资,北京荣邦瑞明投资管理有限责任公司联合中国系统工程学会、中国区域科学协会和北京大学金融创新与发展研究中心共同组织编撰了“新型城镇化蓝皮书”。本书从城市消费者的视角重新审视城市管理和投资,并总结和提炼新型城镇化过程中的一些创新实践和创新思想,为新型城镇化的政策制定与顶层设计提供一定借鉴。全书由总报告和分报告构成,其中分报告分专题篇、区域篇和实践篇三部分。


 总报告包括两篇文章,第一篇《城市消费者——新型城镇化的新视角》,在总结各地新型城镇化实践的基础上,从经济学角度解读人与城市发展之间的关系,创造性地提出城市消费者概念,系统地阐述城市消费者的内涵及其理论和实践基础,指出城市消费者概念有助于重塑城市管理和投资理念,为解读和落实“人的城镇化”提供了一种新的视角和抓手。第二篇《基于城市消费者的城市发展评价》,借助公开统计数据对城市消费者的数量和质量进行测度,以衡量城市的影响力和辐射力,以及城市消费者对于城市的贡献能力和贡献的价值;同时基于城市消费者构建指标体系,对城市的发展阶段作出评价,为城市管理和投资提供参考。


 专题篇共收录十二篇文章,分别对新型城镇化所涉及的集体建设用地、房地产、投融资、产业转型、智慧城市等领域的问题进行专题论述,深入总结该领域的政策环境、发展现状、主要存在的问题,提出符合新型城镇化要求的具有针对性的解决路径。本部分内容由很多亮点,如《城市、土地及住房问题分析》,分析地方治理结构与分税制对城市土地财政和地方融资平台行为的影响,阐述城市土地供应模式与土地财政的运作机制,并预判城市规划、土地政策、房地产税、金融体系等领域的改革前景;又如《新型城镇化背景下的城市投融资转变》,指出未来城市融资中政府将向独立的信用主体转变、平台公司将向市场化企业转变、企业将向城市综合运营商转变,对政府和企业有重要的启示意义。


 区域篇以区域为研究对象,收录三篇报告,包括《浦东新区城镇化发展报告》、《基于三大城市群比较的京津冀发展策略初探》和《基于新型城镇化的武汉城市圈城乡文化时空整合分析》,从不同角度分析了三个区域的发展状况,并提出优化建议。


 实践篇共收录三篇报告,选取各地在新型城镇化过程中具有示范作用的案例,总结各地在土地二次开发、政企合作以及智慧城市等方面的经验和举措,为其它城市提供借鉴和启示。


Abstract

The Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC regards urbanization as a major initiative to solve the structural problems that constraint sustained and healthy development of China's economy, and stresses the road of new urbanization with Chinese characteristics, which requires us to accurately grasp the law of urbanization and establish scientific action framework to promote new urbanization. As the starting point to serve the government decision-making and enterprise investment, this book re-examines urban management and investment from the perspective of urban consumers; and summarizes and refines those innovative practices and ideas in the process of new urbanization, so as to provide reference information for the policy development and top-level design of new urbanization. The book is divided into overall reports and sub-reports which contain three parts: special reports, regional reports and practical reports.


The overall reports include two articles. The first is Urban Consumer: New Perspective for Urbanization, which, on the basis of concluding practices of different places, creatively puts forward the concept of urban consumer through interpreting the relationship between human being and urban development; further, the article systematically clarifies the meaning and both  theoretical and practical foundations of urban consumer, pointing out that  the concept of urban consumer will conduce to reshaping the philosophy of urban management and investment, which provides a new perspective and starting point for understanding and implementation of urbanization for human being. The second article is Evaluation of Urban Development on the Perspective of Urban Consumers, which conducts a statistical study about urban consumer on both in quantity and quality to measure the impact and radiation ability of city, as well as the contribution of urban consumer. In addition, by constructing an evaluation index system for urban development, this article tries to provide reference points for city management and investment of governments and enterprises.


The special reports contain a total of twelve articles. These articles summarize the policy environment, development status and existing problems of many fields, including collective construction land, real estate, investment and financing, industrial transformation and smart city etc.; and then propose targeted solution methods that meet the requirement of new urbanization. This section has many bright spots, for example, An Analysis of China’s Urban, Land and Housing Problems expounds the urban land supply patterns and operation mechanisms of land finance through analyzing the impact of local governance structure and tax distribution system on urban land finance and local financing platforms, which has some enlightenment on the reform of urban planning, land policy, real estate taxes and other areas. For another example, Changes in Urban Investment and Financing Brought by New Urbanization points out that during the future city financing, governments would turn out to be independent credit subject, platform enterprises will be more market-oriented, and social companies will transform into the comprehensive operators of the city, providing important referent value for both government and enterprises.


Regional reports focus on area study and include three reports which are Urbanization Development Report of Pudong New Area, A Study of Development Strategies of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Region based on the Comparison of Three Major Urban agglomerations of China and On Urban-rural Culture Spatiotemporal Integration based on the New Type of Urbanization—A case study of Wuhan City circle. These three articles respectively analyze the development of each area from different aspects and thus advocate some recommendations.


Practice reports select several demonstration cases in different areas’ process of new urbanization. There are three reports in this parts, respectively concluding the experience and actions of land secondary development, public-private-partnership and smart city, to provide lessons and inspirations for other cities.


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